Diseases Treated

Diseases Treated

Acquired underproductive anaemia is a condition caused by a decreased production of red blood cells in the body. It is caused when the bone marrow, which is responsible for producing red blood cells, fails to generate an adequate amount of these cells.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a type of cancer that primarily impacts the immune system’s white blood cells, particularly the lymphocytes. You are likely to develop this condition by the rapid production of immature lymphoblasts in the bone marrow which overcrowd the normal cells and impair their function.

The exact causes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are not well understood. However, there are certain factors that contribute to its development:

  • Genetic factors
  • Chromosomal abnormalities
  • Environmental factors
  • Immune system disorders
  • Prenatal factors

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a type of cancer that primarily impacts the immune system’s white blood cells, particularly the lymphocytes. You are likely to develop this condition by the rapid production of immature lymphoblasts in the bone marrow which overcrowd the normal cells and impair their function.

The exact causes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are not well understood. However, there are certain factors that contribute to its development:

  • Genetic factors
  • Chromosomal abnormalities
  • Environmental factors
  • Immune system disorders
  • Prenatal factors

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disorder that affects the bone marrow and blood cells. In AML, abnormal myeloid cells, which are immature white blood cells, rapidly multiply and crowd out normal blood cells, leading to impaired production of red blood cells, platelets and mature white blood cells. This result in symptoms and complications associated with a compromised immune system and decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

Causes of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) include

  • Age
  • Genetic Mutations
  • Environmental Factors
  • Previous Cancer Treatment
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
  • Inherited Genetic Syndromes

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disorder that affects the bone marrow and blood cells. In AML, abnormal myeloid cells, which are immature white blood cells, rapidly multiply and crowd out normal blood cells, leading to impaired production of red blood cells, platelets and mature white blood cells. This result in symptoms and complications associated with a compromised immune system and decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

Causes of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) include

  • Age
  • Genetic Mutations
  • Environmental Factors
  • Previous Cancer Treatment
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
  • Inherited Genetic Syndromes

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) primarily affects the bone marrow and blood cells. The condition is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal white blood cells. In CML, a genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome leads to the formation of an abnormal protein causing the excessive production of immature white blood cells. The cause is genetic abnormality which is known as the Philadelphia chromosome.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL) is a condition that primarily affects the white blood cells called the lymphocytes. The condition involves abnormalities in the blood cell development and can have overlapping features.There are various factors that increase the chances of developing the condition.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL) is a condition that primarily affects the white blood cells called the lymphocytes. The condition involves abnormalities in the blood cell development and can have overlapping features.There are various factors that increase the chances of developing the condition.

Anemia

Anemia is a condition which is caused by a deficiency of red blood cells or there is a decrease in their ability to carry oxygen to the body’s tissues. It can affect individuals of all ages and genders. In anemia, the hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen is reduced.

The most causes of anemia are as follows:

  • Nutritional deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12, folate)
  • Chronic diseases
  • Blood loss (menstruation, gastrointestinal bleeding)
  • Inherited conditions (sickle cell disease, thalassemia)
  • Bone marrow disorders
  • Autoimmune disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus)
  • Pregnancy or childbirth complications

Anemia

Anemia is a condition which is caused by a deficiency of red blood cells or there is a decrease in their ability to carry oxygen to the body’s tissues. It can affect individuals of all ages and genders. In anemia, the hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen is reduced.

The most causes of anemia are as follows:

  • Nutritional deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12, folate)
  • Chronic diseases
  • Blood loss (menstruation, gastrointestinal bleeding)
  • Inherited conditions (sickle cell disease, thalassemia)
  • Bone marrow disorders
  • Autoimmune disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus)
  • Pregnancy or childbirth complications

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia is a condition that occurs due to a low platelet count in the blood, thereby leading to an increased risk of bleeding and impaired blood clotting. It can be caused by immune system disorders, medications, viral infections, bone marrow disorders and other underlying conditions.
The main causes that increase the risk of developing thrombocytopenia are as follows:

  • Immune system disorders
  • Bone marrow disorders or failure
  • Certain medications (e.g., chemotherapy)
  • Infections (e.g., HIV, hepatitis)
  • Pregnancy complications (e.g., preeclampsia)
  • Genetic conditions (e.g., Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome)

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia is a condition that occurs due to a low platelet count in the blood, thereby leading to an increased risk of bleeding and impaired blood clotting. It can be caused by immune system disorders, medications, viral infections, bone marrow disorders and other underlying conditions.
The main causes that increase the risk of developing thrombocytopenia are as follows:

  • Immune system disorders
  • Bone marrow disorders or failure
  • Certain medications (e.g., chemotherapy)
  • Infections (e.g., HIV, hepatitis)
  • Pregnancy complications (e.g., preeclampsia)
  • Genetic conditions (e.g., Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome)

Increased platelets

Increased platelets, also known as thrombocytosis, refer to a higher than normal count of platelets in the blood. Platelets are blood cells responsible for blood clotting.

The conditions which increase your chance of increased platelets in the body are as follows:

  • Infections (bacterial, viral, or fungal)
  • Inflammatory disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis)
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Surgical removal of the spleen (splenectomy)
  • Acute or chronic bleeding
  • Tissue damage or trauma
  • Certain medications (e.g., corticosteroids)

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Hodgkin’s lymphoma affects the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system. One of the features of this disorder is the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, large abnormal cells found in the lymph nodes.

The exact causes of Hodgkin’s lymphoma are not fully established. However, there are certain factors that have been associated with an increased chance of developing this condition

  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection
  • HIV infection
  • Family history
  • Weakened immune system
  • Genetic factors

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Hodgkin’s lymphoma affects the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system. One of the features of this disorder is the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, large abnormal cells found in the lymph nodes.

The exact causes of Hodgkin’s lymphoma are not fully established. However, there are certain factors that have been associated with an increased chance of developing this condition

  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection
  • HIV infection
  • Family history
  • Weakened immune system
  • Genetic factors

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) affects the lymphatic system and occurs due to the abnormal growth of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, in the lymph nodes and other lymphatic tissues.

There are several factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease:

  • Weakened immune system
  • Certain viral and bacterial infections have been linked to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation like rheumatoid arthritis
  • Exposure to certain chemicals and toxins
  • Previous radiation or chemotherapy
  • Age above 60 years

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) affects the lymphatic system and occurs due to the abnormal growth of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, in the lymph nodes and other lymphatic tissues.

There are several factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease:

  • Weakened immune system
  • Certain viral and bacterial infections have been linked to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation like rheumatoid arthritis
  • Exposure to certain chemicals and toxins
  • Previous radiation or chemotherapy
  • Age above 60 years

Thalassemia

Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, the protein responsible for carrying oxygen in red blood cells. It is characterized by a deficiency in one or more of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin.

The causes of thalassemia are primarily genetic. In most cases, it is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner meaning that both parents must carry thalassemia traits for a child to be affected. If both parents are carriers, there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy of having a child with thalassemia major. It’s important to note that thalassemia is not contagious and cannot be acquired later in life. It is a disorder that individuals are born with due to their genetic makeup.

Thalassemia

Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, the protein responsible for carrying oxygen in red blood cells. It is characterized by a deficiency in one or more of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin.

The causes of thalassemia are primarily genetic. In most cases, it is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner meaning that both parents must carry thalassemia traits for a child to be affected. If both parents are carriers, there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy of having a child with thalassemia major. It’s important to note that thalassemia is not contagious and cannot be acquired later in life. It is a disorder that individuals are born with due to their genetic makeup.

Clotting abnormalities

Clotting abnormalities refer to conditions that disrupt the normal blood clotting process. These abnormalities can lead to excessive clotting (thrombosis) or insufficient clotting (bleeding disorders). The different types of clotting abnormalities include deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), hemophilia and arterial thrombosis.

Clotting abnormalities can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Genetic Factors
  • Medications
  • Underlying Medical Conditions
  • Immobility
  • Smoking
  • Pregnancy and Postpartum
  • Being Obese
  • Surgical procedures, especially those involving major blood vessels or orthopedic surgeries
  • Deficiency of Vitamin K

Clotting abnormalities

Clotting abnormalities refer to conditions that disrupt the normal blood clotting process. These abnormalities can lead to excessive clotting (thrombosis) or insufficient clotting (bleeding disorders). The different types of clotting abnormalities include deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), hemophilia and arterial thrombosis.

Clotting abnormalities can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Genetic Factors
  • Medications
  • Underlying Medical Conditions
  • Immobility
  • Smoking
  • Pregnancy and Postpartum
  • Being Obese
  • Surgical procedures, especially those involving major blood vessels or orthopedic surgeries
  • Deficiency of Vitamin K

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma, also known as Kahler’s disease, is one type cancer that affects the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. In multiple myeloma, the abnormal plasma cells get built up in the bone marrow thereby crowding out healthy blood cells. This leads to various complications, including weakened bones, anemia, kidney problems and a compromised immune system.

Researchers believe that a combination of genetic and environmental factors play a role in its development. Some of the risk factors include:

  • People over the age of 65
  • Men are more likely to develop this condition
  • Black race and Ethnicity like African Americans
  • Family history
  • Pre-existing condition like Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma, also known as Kahler’s disease, is one type cancer that affects the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. In multiple myeloma, the abnormal plasma cells get built up in the bone marrow thereby crowding out healthy blood cells. This leads to various complications, including weakened bones, anemia, kidney problems and a compromised immune system.

Researchers believe that a combination of genetic and environmental factors play a role in its development. Some of the risk factors include:

  • People over the age of 65
  • Men are more likely to develop this condition
  • Black race and Ethnicity like African Americans
  • Family history
  • Pre-existing condition like Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)

Aplastic anemia

When the bone marrow fails to produce new blood cells, it causes aplastic anemia. Though it is a rare condition, it can be severe at times and prove to be fatal. Aplastic anemia can develop at any age.

There are two types of aplastic anemia which are as follows:

  1. Acquired aplastic anemia
  2. Inherited aplastic anemia

But what causes aplastic anemia, let’s know them

  • Intake of certain drugs
  • History of undergoing radiation and chemotherapy treatment
  • Exposure to toxic chemicals
  • Viral infections
  • Underlying medical conditions like autoimmune disorders
  • Genetic disorders

Aplastic anemia

When the bone marrow fails to produce new blood cells, it causes aplastic anemia. Though it is a rare condition, it can be severe at times and prove to be fatal. Aplastic anemia can develop at any age.

There are two types of aplastic anemia which are as follows:

  1. Acquired aplastic anemia
  2. Inherited aplastic anemia

But what causes aplastic anemia, let’s know them

  • Intake of certain drugs
  • History of undergoing radiation and chemotherapy treatment
  • Exposure to toxic chemicals
  • Viral infections
  • Underlying medical conditions like autoimmune disorders
  • Genetic disorders

Polycythemia

Polycythemia is a rare blood disorder where there is an abnormal increase in the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Here, the bone marrow produces too many red blood cells, leading to an elevated red blood cell count (erythrocytosis). This condition can result in the blood becoming thicker which may impede its flow through blood vessels and affect the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs.

The condition is caused either by primary factors like genetic mutations (JAK2 gene) or secondary factors such as chronic hypoxia, smoking, kidney tumors, testosterone use, or certain genetic mutations, thereby stimulating excessive red blood cell production.

Polycythemia

Polycythemia is a rare blood disorder where there is an abnormal increase in the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Here, the bone marrow produces too many red blood cells, leading to an elevated red blood cell count (erythrocytosis). This condition can result in the blood becoming thicker which may impede its flow through blood vessels and affect the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs.

The condition is caused either by primary factors like genetic mutations (JAK2 gene) or secondary factors such as chronic hypoxia, smoking, kidney tumors, testosterone use, or certain genetic mutations, thereby stimulating excessive red blood cell production.

Thrombosis

Thrombosis is a condition that causes formation of blood clots within blood vessels, obstructing normal blood flow. It can occur in arteries or veins, leading to various complications. Immediate medical attention is crucial to prevent the clot from causing severe conditions like heart attack, stroke or deep vein thrombosis.

There are many risk factors that can increase your chance of developing Thrombosis. Here are some of them.

  • Injury to the veins
  • Pressure in the veins during pregnancy
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Smoking
  • Being overweight
  • Excessive consumption of contraceptive pills
  • Inflammatory bowel syndrome
  • Heart failure

Thrombosis

Thrombosis is a condition that causes formation of blood clots within blood vessels, obstructing normal blood flow. It can occur in arteries or veins, leading to various complications. Immediate medical attention is crucial to prevent the clot from causing severe conditions like heart attack, stroke or deep vein thrombosis.

There are many risk factors that can increase your chance of developing Thrombosis. Here are some of them.

  • Injury to the veins
  • Pressure in the veins during pregnancy
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Smoking
  • Being overweight
  • Excessive consumption of contraceptive pills
  • Inflammatory bowel syndrome
  • Heart failure

Haemophilia & Coagulation Defects

Haemophilia and coagulation defects are conditions characterized by impaired blood clotting. It encompasses a range of conditions that affect the normal process of blood clot formation, resulting in excessive bleeding or clotting.

Coagulation defects can have various causes, including genetic mutations affecting clotting factors or other proteins involved in the clotting process, liver diseases that impair clotting factor production, vitamin deficiencies, certain medications, or autoimmune disorders that can lead to the formation of inhibitors against clotting factors.

Hemophilia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body’s ability to form blood clots properly. People with hemophilia have a deficiency or absence of certain proteins called clotting factor VIII or IX. As a result, individuals with hemophilia experience prolonged bleeding even from minor injuries.

There are two main types of hemophilia:
Hemophilia A: It is caused by a deficiency or absence of clotting factor VIII (FVIII).
Hemophilia B: Individuals suffer from this condition due to deficiency of clotting factor IX (FIX).

Hemophilia is caused by genetic mutations that affect the production of clotting factors in the blood.
The most common causes of hemophilia include:

  • Inherited gene mutations
  • X-linked recessive inheritance

Haemophilia & Coagulation Defects

Haemophilia and coagulation defects are conditions characterized by impaired blood clotting. It is an inherited disorder where the blood lacks certain clotting factors, leading to prolonged bleeding. It encompasses a range of conditions that affect the normal process of blood clot formation, resulting in excessive bleeding or clotting.

Haemophilia is caused by inherited genetic mutations that affect the production of clotting factors. Coagulation defects can have various causes, including genetic mutations affecting clotting factors or other proteins involved in the clotting process, liver diseases that impair clotting factor production, vitamin deficiencies, certain medications, or autoimmune disorders that can lead to the formation of inhibitors against clotting factors.

ITP

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). It occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys its own platelets, which are essential for blood clotting. This often causes easy bruising, bleeding gums, and excessive bleeding.

The exact cause of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) is not fully understood. Several factors are believed to lead to the development of this condition:

  • Autoimmune response
  • Antibody-mediated destruction
  • Viral infections
  • Medications
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Other autoimmune conditions

Unexplained/Congenital cytopenia

Unexplained or congenital cytopenia refers to a condition caused by the decrease in the number of blood cells (cytopenia). It primarily affects one or more types of blood cells like the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Unlike secondary cytopenias that are caused by known factors such as medications, infections, or autoimmune disorders, unexplained or congenital cytopenia occurs without an identifiable trigger and may be present from birth (congenital) or develop later in life.

Here are some possible causes:

  • Inherited genetic mutations
  • Conditions such as aplastic anemia, Fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita
  • Rare genetic disorders, such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia or Shwachman-Diamond syndrome
  • Genetic conditions, like hereditary spherocytosis or hereditary elliptocytosis
  • Inherited platelet disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome or MYH9-related disorders
  • Autoimmune disorders

Unexplained/Congenital cytopenia

Unexplained or congenital cytopenia refers to a condition caused by the decrease in the number of blood cells (cytopenia). It primarily affects one or more types of blood cells like the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Unlike secondary cytopenias that are caused by known factors such as medications, infections, or autoimmune disorders, unexplained or congenital cytopenia occurs without an identifiable trigger and may be present from birth (congenital) or develop later in life.

Here are some possible causes:

  • Inherited genetic mutations
  • Conditions such as aplastic anemia, Fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita
  • Rare genetic disorders, such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia or Shwachman-Diamond syndrome
  • Genetic conditions, like hereditary spherocytosis or hereditary elliptocytosis
  • Inherited platelet disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome or MYH9-related disorders
  • Autoimmune disorders

Acquired Underproductive Anaemia

Acquired underproductive anaemia is a condition caused by a decreased production of red blood cells in the body. It is caused when the bone marrow, which is responsible for producing red blood cells, fails to generate an adequate amount of these cells.

There are various factors that can lead to the development of this condition, such as:

  • Chronic diseases like chronic kidney disease, liver disease, and autoimmune disorders
  • Nutritional deficiencies, particularly iron, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies
  • Bone marrow disorders or damage
  • Infections, such as HIV/AIDS or certain viral infections
  • Hormonal imbalances, such as hypothyroidism
  • Autoimmune conditions
  • Certain cancers, such as leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes

Acquired Underproductive Anaemia

Acquired underproductive anaemia is a condition caused by a decreased production of red blood cells in the body. It is caused when the bone marrow, which is responsible for producing red blood cells, fails to generate an adequate amount of these cells.

There are various factors that can lead to the development of this condition, such as:

  • Chronic diseases like chronic kidney disease, liver disease, and autoimmune disorders
  • Nutritional deficiencies, particularly iron, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies
  • Bone marrow disorders or damage
  • Infections, such as HIV/AIDS or certain viral infections
  • Hormonal imbalances, such as hypothyroidism
  • Autoimmune conditions
  • Certain cancers, such as leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder that affects the haemoglobin in red blood cells. As a result, the shape of the red blood cells changes and become rigid and sickle-shaped. These cells get stuck in blood vessels, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen to various parts of the body.

Genetic mutation in both copies of HBB gene is one of the main causes of this condition. Specifically, a single nucleotide substitution leads to the production of haemoglobin molecules called haemoglobin S. The disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that both parents must pass on the mutated gene for a child to have the condition.

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder that affects the haemoglobin in red blood cells. As a result, the shape of the red blood cells changes and become rigid and sickle-shaped. These cells get stuck in blood vessels, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen to various parts of the body.

Genetic mutation in both copies of HBB gene is one of the main causes of this condition. Specifically, a single nucleotide substitution leads to the production of haemoglobin molecules called haemoglobin S. The disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that both parents must pass on the mutated gene for a child to have the condition.

Hemolytic anaemia

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that is mainly caused by low number of red blood cells due to excess hemolysis in the body. The condition can be either mild or serious, depending upon its severity.

There are certain factors that can cause hemolysis to spread rapidly. These include the following:

  • Autoimmune reactions
  • Complications related to transfusion of blood
  • Infections
  • Underlying medical conditions like sickle cell disease ands thalassemia
  • Certain medications

Hemolytic anaemia

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that is mainly caused by low number of red blood cells due to excess hemolysis in the body. The condition can be either mild or serious, depending upon its severity.

There are certain factors that can cause hemolysis to spread rapidly. These include the following:

  • Autoimmune reactions
  • Complications related to transfusion of blood
  • Infections
  • Underlying medical conditions like sickle cell disease ands thalassemia
  • Certain medications

Thrombophilia

Thrombophilia refers to a group of disorders which causes an increased tendency to form abnormal blood clots. It can be inherited or acquired and may lead to conditions such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Though the condition is not fatal, at times, serious blood clots might require emergency care.

Thrombophilia can have various causes:

  • Inherited thrombophilias: Genetic mutations like prothrombin gene mutations or deficiencies of antithrombin, protein C, or protein S.
  • Acquired thrombophilias:
    1. Medical conditions like cancer, autoimmune disorders, or certain blood disorders.
    2. Hormonal factors such as pregnancy, oral contraceptives, or hormone replacement therapy.
    3. Medications like hormone treatments and chemotherapy

Thrombophilia

Thrombophilia refers to a group of disorders which causes an increased tendency to form abnormal blood clots. It can be inherited or acquired and may lead to conditions such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Though the condition is not fatal, at times, serious blood clots might require emergency care.

Thrombophilia can have various causes:

  • Inherited thrombophilias: Genetic mutations like prothrombin gene mutations or deficiencies of antithrombin, protein C, or protein S.
  • Inherited thrombophilias:
    1. Medical conditions like cancer, autoimmune disorders, or certain blood disorders.
    2. Hormonal factors such as pregnancy, oral contraceptives, or hormone replacement therapy.
    3. Medications like hormone treatments and chemotherapy

The symptoms vary with the location and extent of the clot. Common symptoms include:

  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): Swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected leg.
  • Pulmonary embolism (PE): Sudden shortness of breath, chest pain, rapid heartbeat, coughing blood, or fainting.

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

When there is an overproduction of certain blood cells in the bone marrow, it leads to the development of Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), which are a group of rare blood disorders. Some common types include polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis.

Research suggests that genetic mutations in bone marrow cells play a significant role in the development of MPNs. These mutations affect the signalling pathways that regulate the production of blood cells, leading to abnormal and excessive growth of certain cell types. Other factors, such as exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, may also contribute to the development of MPNs, although their role is less well-defined.

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

When there is an overproduction of certain blood cells in the bone marrow, it leads to the development of Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), which are a group of rare blood disorders. Some common types include polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis.

Research suggests that genetic mutations in bone marrow cells play a significant role in the development of MPNs. These mutations affect the signalling pathways that regulate the production of blood cells, leading to abnormal and excessive growth of certain cell types. Other factors, such as exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, may also contribute to the development of MPNs, although their role is less well-defined.

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired blood disorder caused by the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells. Diagnosis is made through blood tests and treatment options include medications and bone marrow transplantation.

The PIGA gene mutation in PNH is acquired and not inherited, meaning it is not passed down from parents. It is thought to occur randomly during the development of the bone marrow cells.

The exact reason why the PIGA gene mutation occurs is not well understood. However, it is believed to be related to abnormal immune system activity and the presence of complement system dysregulation, which can lead to the destruction of red blood cells and the development of PNH symptoms.

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired blood disorder caused by the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells. Diagnosis is made through blood tests and treatment options include medications and bone marrow transplantation.

The PIGA gene mutation in PNH is acquired and not inherited, meaning it is not passed down from parents. It is thought to occur randomly during the development of the bone marrow cells.

The exact reason why the PIGA gene mutation occurs is not well understood. However, it is believed to be related to abnormal immune system activity and the presence of complement system dysregulation, which can lead to the destruction of red blood cells and the development of PNH symptoms.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) refer to a group of bone marrow disorders caused by abnormal production of blood cells. In MDS, the bone marrow fails to produce healthy and mature blood cells, leading to low blood cell counts and impaired functioning. MDS can progress to acute leukemia in some cases.

The causes of MDS are often unknown, but certain risk factors have been identified:

  • Exposure to chemotherapy or radiation therapy
  • Previous treatment for other cancers
  • Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins
  • Certain genetic mutations
  • Advanced age
  • Inherited genetic conditions or syndromes

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) refer to a group of bone marrow disorders caused by abnormal production of blood cells. In MDS, the bone marrow fails to produce healthy and mature blood cells, leading to low blood cell counts and impaired functioning. MDS can progress to acute leukemia in some cases.

The causes of MDS are often unknown, but certain risk factors have been identified:

  • Exposure to chemotherapy or radiation therapy
  • Previous treatment for other cancers
  • Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins
  • Certain genetic mutations
  • Advanced age
  • Inherited genetic conditions or syndromes

Leukocytosis

Leukocytosis refers to a condition where there is an increase in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) in the bloodstream. Normally, the white blood cell count in the blood ranges from 4,000 to 11,000 cells per microliter. When the count exceeds this range, it is considered leukocytosis.

The underlying cause of leukocytosis can often be determined by evaluating the specific types of white blood cells that are elevated. Here are some common causes.

  • Bacterial infections, such as pneumonia and urinary tract infections
  • Inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis and inflammatory bowel disease
  • Trauma, burns, surgery, or heart attacks can cause a response known as “stress leukocytosis”
  • Certain medications, such as corticosteroids, lithium and epinephrine
  • Severe allergic reactions

Leukocytosis

Leukocytosis refers to a condition where there is an increase in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) in the bloodstream. Normally, the white blood cell count in the blood ranges from 4,000 to 11,000 cells per microliter. When the count exceeds this range, it is considered leukocytosis.

The underlying cause of leukocytosis can often be determined by evaluating the specific types of white blood cells that are elevated. Here are some common causes.

  • Bacterial infections, such as pneumonia and urinary tract infections
  • Inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis and inflammatory bowel disease
  • Trauma, burns, surgery, or heart attacks can cause a response known as “stress leukocytosis”
  • Certain medications, such as corticosteroids, lithium and epinephrine
  • Severe allergic reactions

Thrombocythemia

Platelets are small blood cells which play a crucial role in blood clotting, helping to prevent excessive bleeding. When there is an abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the bloodstream, it causes thrombocytosis.

Thrombocythemia is typically classified into two types:

  1. Primary or essential thrombocythemia
  2. Secondary thrombocythemia

The symptoms of thrombocythemia can vary among individuals. There are various risk factors which increase the chance of developing thrombocythemia. Here are some of them.

  • Chronic inflammation
  • Infection
  • Certain medications (e.g., corticosteroids, epinephrine)
  • Surgery or trauma
  • Cancer
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Autoimmune disorders

Thrombocythemia

Platelets are small blood cells which play a crucial role in blood clotting, helping to prevent excessive bleeding. When there is an abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the bloodstream, it causes thrombocytosis.

Thrombocythemia is typically classified into two types:

  1. Primary or essential thrombocythemia
  2. Secondary thrombocythemia

The symptoms of thrombocythemia can vary among individuals. There are various risk factors which increase the chance of developing thrombocythemia. Here are some of them.

  • Chronic inflammation
  • Infection
  • Certain medications (e.g., corticosteroids, epinephrine)
  • Surgery or trauma
  • Cancer
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Autoimmune disorders

Bleeding disorders

A bleeding disorder is a medical condition characterized by a disruption in the body’s ability to form blood clots, leading to excessive or prolonged bleeding.
Three most common hereditary bleeding disorders are hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency), hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency) and von Willebrand disease.

In individuals with bleeding disorders, there is a disruption in the clotting process due to inadequate clotting factors .This impairment can result in excessive or prolonged bleeding and in various parts of the body, such as muscles and joints. The absence or dysfunction of clotting factors and platelets can prevent the formation of a stable clot, leading to difficulties in controlling bleeding.

Bleeding disorders

A bleeding disorder is a medical condition characterized by a disruption in the body’s ability to form blood clots, leading to excessive or prolonged bleeding.
Three most common hereditary bleeding disorders are hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency), hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency) and von Willebrand disease.

In individuals with bleeding disorders, there is a disruption in the clotting process due to inadequate clotting factors .This impairment can result in excessive or prolonged bleeding and in various parts of the body, such as muscles and joints. The absence or dysfunction of clotting factors and platelets can prevent the formation of a stable clot, leading to difficulties in controlling bleeding.

Contact Info

Thakurpukur Cancer Hospital, Mahatma Gandhi Road,
Greater Bakul Bithi, Chak Thakurani,
Kolkata-700063, West Bengal

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      Contact Info

      Thakurpukur Cancer Hospital, Mahatma Gandhi Road,
      Greater Bakul Bithi, Chak Thakurani,
      Kolkata-700063, West Bengal